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Windows Binary Sizes

Chrome binaries sometimes increase in size for unclear reasons and investigating these regressions can be quite tricky. There are a a few tools that help with investigating these regressions or just looking for wasted bytes in DLLs or EXEs. The tools are:
  • New in 2021: SizeBench is a Microsoft tool that does some sophisticated analysis of binary size. More information can be found here. If you can't download it from the store then you can clone and then use "powershell OSD\Download-AppxFromStore.ps1 -storeurl" to download the files, and then run the SizeBench .appx file to install SizeBench. Note that SizeBench is incompatible with lld-link so you have to build chrome with "use_lld = false", and so far has not worked at all.
  • tools\win\ShowGlobals - this executable (must be built from a VS solution) uses DIA2 (and is based off of the dia2dump sample whose source comes with Visual Studio) to print all ‘interesting’ global variables. Just pass the path to a PDB file and details about any large or redundant global variables will be printed. Large global variables are simple enough to understand. Redundant or repeated global variables are when the same global ends up in the binary multiple times - sometimes dozens or hundreds of times. This happens when a non-integral global variable (typically a struct, array, float, or double, or an integral type with a non-trivial constructor) is defined as static or const in a header file, causing it to be instantiated in multiple translation units. The constants kWastageThreshold and kBigSizeThreshold can be used to configure how much information ShowGlobals reports. Making these command-line parameters is left as an exercise for the reader.
  • tools\win\ - this uses ShowGlobals.exe to get the interesting global variables from two PE files and then print what has changed, either different sizes or different interesting globals. This is designed for understanding size regressions, since binary size regressions, even when they are mostly due to code size, often have a correlated effect on global variables
  • tools\win\ - this displays a summary of the size of the sections in the DLLs or EXEs whose paths are passed to it. If two copies of the same DLL/EXE are passed to it then the size differences are printed as a summary, to make regressions and improvements easier to see. This is most often used for measuring progress or seeing what section has grown.
  • tools\win\ - this scans the output of "link /verbose" in order to see why a particular object file was linked in. This can either be because it was listed on the command line (perhaps it was in a source set) or because it was referenced (often indirectly) by an object file that was listed on the command line.
  • SymbolSort - this is a third party tool available on github that generates various reports, including a sorted-by-size list of all symbols, including functions. The -diff option to SymbolSort is particularly useful for identifying where a change in size is coming from, grouped in various ways. Usage: SymbolSort -in new\chrome.dll.pdb -diff old\chrome.dll.pdb -out change.txt
  • SymbolSort data can be visualized using webtreemap - see for an example
  • Static initializers waste code size and create process-private data. The source to a static_initializers tool that will look for symbol names associated with static initializers is in the Chromium repo in tools\win\static_initializers.
Details of how and when to use these tools are shown below.

If looking for size saving opportunities then “ShowGlobals.exe  file.pdb” can be used to find duplicated or large global variables that may be unnecessary. Typical (shortened for this document) results look like this - the first set of entries are duplicated globals, the second set of entries are large globals:

#Dups  DupSize  Size   Section  Symbol-name
805      805                    std::piecewise_construct
3        204                    rgb_red
3        204                    rgb_green
3        204                    rgb_blue
187      187                    WTF::in_place
4        160                    extensions::api::g_factory
                122784    2     kBrotliDictionary
                65536     2     jpeg_nbits_table
                57080     2     propsVectorsTrie_index
                53064     3     unigram_table
                50364     2     kNetworkingPrivate
                47152     3     device::UsbIds::vendors_

The actual output is tab separated and can be most easily visualized by pasting into a spreadsheet to ensure that the columns line up.

Some fixed issues include:
  • webrtc regression was analyzed to find a fix - see for the many steps, and
  • We have 216 functions instances of color_xform_RGBA<T> totaling 68,184 bytes, down from 300 instances totaling 146496 bytes ( and This waste was found by using SymbolSort's -diff option to investigate a sizes regression.
  • A regression in chrome_watcher.dll was methodically analyzed to understand precisely where the size was coming from - see the steps listed out starting at this bug comment.
The most egregious problems shown by these reports have been fixed but some remaining issues include:
The large kBrotliDictionary and jpeg_nbits_table arrays can be seen, but those are used and are in the read-only section, so there is nothing to be done.

When investigating a regression can be used to find out what large or duplicated global variables have showed up between two builds. Just pass both PDBs and a summary of the changes will be printed. This uses ShowGlobals.exe to generate the list of interesting global variables and then prints a diff.

When investigating a regression (or testing a fix) it can be useful to use to print the size of all of the sections with a PE, or to compare to PE files (two versions of chrome.dll, for instance). This is the ultimate measure of success for a change - has it made the binary smaller or larger, and if so where?

If an unwanted global variable is being linked in then can be used to help answer the question of “why?” First you need to find out what object file defines the variable. For instance, ff_cos_131072 and the other ff_* globals are defined in rdft.c. When rdft.obj is pulled in then Chrome gets significantly bigger. Some of this is discussed in comments #25 to #27 here:

In order to get verbose linker output you need to modify the appropriate file to add the /verbose linker flag. For chrome.dll I make the following modification:

diff --git a/chrome/ b/chrome/
index 58586fc..c15d463 100644
--- a/chrome/
+++ b/chrome/
@@ -354,6 +354,7 @@ if (is_win) {
+      "/verbose",

     if (!is_component_build) {

Then build chrome.dll, redirecting the verbose output to a text file:

> ninja -C out\release chrome.dll >verbose.txt

Alternately you can use the techniques discussed in the The Chromium Chronicle: Preprocessing Source to get the linker command and then manually re-run that command with /verbose appended, redirecting to a text file.

Then is used to find why a particular object file is being pulled in, in this case mime_util.obj:

> python verbose.txt mime_util.obj

Because there are multiple object files called mime_util.obj the script will be searching for for all of them, as shown in the first line of output:

>python verbose.txt mime_util.obj
  Searching for [u'net.lib(mime_util.obj)', u'base.lib(mime_util.obj)']

You can specify which version you want to search for by including the .lib name in your command-line search parameter, which is just used for sub-string matching:

>python verbose.txt base.lib(mime_util.obj)

Typical output looks like this:

>python tools\win\ verbose08.txt drop_data.obj
Database loaded - 3844 xrefs found
Searching for common_sources.lib(drop_data.obj)
common_sources.lib(drop_data.obj).obj pulled in for symbol Metadata::Metadata...

common.lib(content_message_generator.obj).obj pulled in for symbol ...
        Command-line obj file: url_loader.mojom.obj

In this case this tells us that drop_data.obj is being pulled in indirectly through a chain of references that starts with url_loader.mojom.obj. url_loader.mojom.obj is in a source_set which means that it is on the command-line. I then change the source_set to a static_library and redo the steps. If all goes well then the unwanted .obj file will eventually stop being pulled in and I can use to measure the savings, and ShowGlobals to look for the next large global variable.

Sometimes this technique - of changing source_set to static_library - doesn’t help. In those case it can be important to figure out follow the chain of symbols and see if it can be broken. In one case ( SkGeometry.obj (skia) was pulling in PeriodicWave.obj (Blink) because of log2f. Investigation showed that SkGeometry.obj referenced the math.h function log2f, while PeriodicWave.obj defined it as an inline function. The chain was broken by not defining log2f as an inline function (letting math.h do that) and a significant amount of code size was saved.

Note that some size regressions only happen with certain build configurations. Ideally all testing would be done with PGO builds, but that is unwieldy, so release (non-component?) builds are probably the best starting point. If a size regression reproes on this configuration then investigate there and fix it. But, it is advisable to verify the fix on a full official build - with both is_official_build and full_wpo_on_official set to true. Failing to do this test can lead to a fix that doesn’t actually help on the builds that we ship to customers, and this can go unnoticed for months.

See for an example of using this technique. In this case it was sufficient to change a single source_set to a static_library. The size savings of 900 KB was verified using:

> python out\release\chrome.dll size_reduction\chrome.dll
Size of out\release\chrome.dll is 42.127872 MB
      name:   mem size  ,  disk size
     .text: 33.900375 MB
    .rdata:  6.325718 MB
     .data:  0.718696 MB,  0.274944 MB
      .tls:  0.000025 MB
  CPADinfo:  0.000036 MB
   .rodata:  0.003216 MB
  .crthunk:  0.000064 MB
    .gfids:  0.001052 MB
    _RDATA:  0.000288 MB
     .rsrc:  0.175088 MB
    .reloc:  1.443124 MB

Size of size_reduction\chrome.dll is 41.211392 MB
      name:   mem size  ,  disk size
     .text: 33.188599 MB
    .rdata:  6.164966 MB
     .data:  0.707848 MB,  0.264704 MB
      .tls:  0.000025 MB
  CPADinfo:  0.000036 MB
   .rodata:  0.003216 MB
  .crthunk:  0.000064 MB
    .gfids:  0.001052 MB
    _RDATA:  0.000288 MB
     .rsrc:  0.175088 MB
    .reloc:  1.409388 MB

Change from out\release\chrome.dll to size_reduction\chrome.dll
     .text: -711776 bytes change
    .rdata: -160752 bytes change
     .data: -10848 bytes change
    .reloc: -33736 bytes change
Total change: -917112 bytes