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BiDi support in WebKit

## RTL Task Force

Objective: Improve RTL handling in webkit editing and layout/rendering.

Mailing list:

Issue tracker

Members: Alex Komoroske (PM), Xiaomei Ji, Ryosuke Niwa, Jeremy Moskovich, Levi Weintraub, Uri Bernstein, Aharon Lanin, Roland Steiner, Jason Elbaum, Ahmed Hassan, Mohamed Elhawary, Michal Levin (UX).

Standard Proposal: Additional Requirements for Bidi in HTML

Test Suite

RTL in Rich Text Edit in browserscope.

HTML+CSS internationalization test suite: text direction.

The Challenges

Lack of one-to-one correspondence between visual and logical character positions.

For right-to-left text, logical order (the order the text is stored) and visual order (the order the text is displayed) are not the same. They are not just the reversed order of each other when bi-directional text is involved. They also don't have a simple relationship (without going through reordering resolved levels in the Unicode Bidi Algorithm). For example, the last logical run of text could be a in the middle visually (not visually first neither visually last).

<div style="direction: ltr;">


<span>testing רק</span>



[Bidi editing in Mozilla] The main issue involved in bidirectional editing is that there is no one-to-one relationship between a logical position in the text, and a visual position on screen. A single logical position can map to two different visual positions, and a single visual position might map to two different logical positions.

In the following examples, I will use uppercase Latin letters to represent RTL (e.g. Hebrew) letters, whereas lowercase Latin letters will represent LTR (e.g. Latin) letters. This is the convention, as it makes it easier for people who can not read RTL languages to understand the examples.

Consider, for example, the text with the following logical representation: latinHEBREWmore (this example deliberately omits spaces, in order to avoid the issues associated with resolving their directionality). This text is displayed on the screen as latinWERBEHmore.

Consider the logical position between n and H. This is immediately after n, so it maps to the visual position between n and W. But it is also immediately before H, so it also maps to the visual position between H and m.

Now, consider the visual position between n and W. It is immediately after n, so it can be mapped to the logical position between n and H. But it also immediately after W, so it can also be mapped to the logical position between W and m.

Bidirectional text is stored logically, and (obviously) displayed visually. The caret, being a graphical element, corresponds to a visual location. The user can manipulate text and move the caret through a combination of logical functions (such as typing or deleting) and visual functions (such as using the arrow keys). Therefore, the problem of mapping between logical and visual positions in a way that meets the user's expectations is the central problem of bidirectional editing.[Bidi editing in Mozilla]

IBM has a non-trivial algorithm for rendering the caret in correct position in bi-directional text.

Lack of clear spec on BiDi editing behavior

As mentioned above, mapping between logical and visual positions is the central problem of bidirectional editing. But, there is no standard on how such mapping should be done. Different browsers behave differently. For example, a logical string "123ABC" (where 123 represents Arabic number and ABC represents Arabic letter) is rendered as "CBA123" visually when the paragraph directionality is left-to-right. The visual positions in Firefox, IE, and Chrome/WebKit are as following:

Internet Explorer: (0)(1)(7)C(6)B(5)A(4)1(2)2(3)3 Firefox: (0)(7)C(6)B(5)A(1)(4)1(2)2(3)3 Chrome/WebKit: (0)C(5)B(4)A1(1)2(2)3(3)(6). Which one meets user's expectation is under discussion right now. Another case of lacking clear spec is that there is no consensus on whether a UI function should behave logically or visually. Different browsers might behave differently. For example, IE handles cursor movement (arrow keys) as logical function, while Firefox (by default) and WebKit [after a long debate on the topic] handle it as visual function. For example, there are always discussions on whether selection should be treated as visual or logical. Currently, IE, Firefox (by default) and WebKit all treat selection as a logical operation. But Firefox also provides options to toggle between visual and logical behavior. For example, whether HOME & END should put the caret at the visual extreme or they should be considered as logical operation. Currently, IE and WebKit handle HOME & END as putting the caret at the visual extreme, while Firefox (by default) handles it as logical operation.

Lack of clear spec on behavior of HTML in the face of certain BiDi issues.

For some HTML elements, there is no standard defined on how they should be rendered in RTL or in a bi-directional context. Different browsers behave differently. Since RTL users are mostly adjusted to the behavior of IE, they would expect the same behavior as that of IE, even it might not be the desired. For example, there is no standard defined on how to render <input> element, whether it should auto-detects the input text's directionality and uses that for rendering, or use the <input> element's directionality for rendering the input text. There are some discussions (comment #2, #7, #8, #10 ) in related WebKit issue. For example, there is no standard defined on how to render <selection>/<option> elements when either or both the element have 'dir' attributes defined. There is discussion (comment #2, #5) in related Webkit issue. The same goes for for script dialog text, <title> attribute etc. Aharon Lanin proposed additional requirement for BiDi in HTML for HTML5.

The main issue involved in RTL rendering is not only whether to render bi-directional text correctly for any HTML structure (from example, inline element inside block element) when 'dir' attribute is set, when unicode bidi control characters are used, when unicode-bidi property is set. But also to rendering the whole RTL page correctly. For example, previously, the #1 issue reported in Middle East North Africa by Chrome users is the truncation of the content of RTL pages so only the right-most part of the content that fit in browser window was displayed. Fixing it requires a good understanding of the rendering layer (with 67k line of code) and its relation with the page and platform layers. Beyond that, the fix needed to work on different platforms (for example, Apple's Mac port has it's own distinct code path handling scroll view) as well.


"dir" attribute:

"direction" and "unicode-bidi" properties:

Handling right-to-left scripts:

Internationalization techniques: handling text direction:

What you need to know about the bidi algorithm and inline markup:

Unicode Bidi Algorithm:

BiDi HowTo:

Public talk by Aharon on BiDi on the web:

Bidi editing in Mozilla:

Guidelines of a logical user interface for editing bidirectional text by IBM

RTL Release Note

Milestone 9 (r72805):

  1. Solved the #1 issue reported in Middle East and North Africa. Now, RTL page with content overflow could be viewed completely with horizontal scrollbar instead of page being truncated (r72852).
  2. Unicode bidi control characters are preserved in text input area. So, Hebrew, Arabic, and Persian speakers can type or cut/copy/paste the text having unicode bidi control characters correctly, and they can start enjoy twitters (r71566).

Milestone 10 (r76408):

  1. TAB inside <pre> overflow correctly in RTL context (r72847).
  2. up arrow works correctly with RTL text with word wrapping (r72861).
  3. clicking to position cursor at the end of a line of Arabic text position the cursor correctly (r73548).
  4. Default horizontal position of position:fixed block is right in RTL context.
  5. move to line boundary visually works correctly in RTL context (r75018).
  6. Caret goes to the right direction when pressing an arrow key after selection is made (r76312).

Milestone 11 (r80534)

  1. Support dir="auto" (r79024).
  2. ISO-8859-8 Hebrew text displayed correctly (r78491).
  3. Text runs with different directionality inside an embedding inline box displayed correctly in RTL context (r77267).
  4. Background image positioned correctly in RTL context (r78396).
  5. <option> supports the dir attribute and be displayed accordingly both in the drop-down and after being chosen (r77654).
  6. extend selection by line boundary works correctly in RTL context (r78799).